SAMPLE CONFERENCE PAPER
Sample Chapter for a Proceedings Volume
Using numerical references
DUNCAN D. DAVIES*, ARTHUR JONES*, JANET DOE#, and FRED B. SMITH*,#
*Department of Botany, University of England, Trafalgar Square, London, UK; #Institute of Scientific Editing, University of North America, 22nd Street, New York, NY, USA
Please delete both Keywords and Abstract sections unless instructed otherwise by your volume editor. You may wish to submit a separate page of keywords for your volume editor for his use in indexing this volume but delete this section from your actual chapter.
Please also note that running heads should not exceed 1 line. If necessary abbreviate the title of your chapter and use the first named author et al. in the running heads.
Please also use English spellings unless instructed otherwise.
This text has been excerpted from various contributions in a previously published proceedings volume in order to provide examples of the different elements you may be using in your chapter. The text itself may, therefore, be illogical and disjointed.
Please follow the style of this sample chapter especially with regard to the use of capitalization on the title page.
1.1 Initial Comments
One hundred years have elapsed since Frank1 used a combination of careful field observations and laboratory growth studies to develop the first detailed hypothesis concerning the significance of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. He envisaged that mycorrhizal fungi absorbed organic nitrogen (N) from the superficial layers of forest soil, passing this element to the trees, at the same time obtaining carbon to sustain themselves. It is in many ways regrettable that in the ensuing century, research on the symbiosis has not been based on the same integrated approach, but followed two distinct and often divergent paths one leading to analysis of function under simplified laboratory conditions, the other to evaluation, in the field, of the relationships between the fungi involved and plant roots. In order to achieve any understanding of the ecological significance of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, a synthesis of progress made in the two separate lines of advance is essential.
2. STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF ECTOMYCORRHIZAL ROOTS
There is now little dispute over the nature of the complex fungal structure, the Hartig-net, which provides the intimate contact between the mycorrhizal partners. Indeed, it appears to be constructed in a remarkably uniform manner across a whole range of plant-fungus partnerships. The hyphae of the fungal partner, in penetrating between the radial walls of the outer cells of the root cortex, produce a largely unseptate but much branched and compact fan-like development (Fig. 1) in which the individual walls of the hyphal branches provide a very large surface area and hence a structure which was recognised by Dudderidge and Read2 as being analogous to that of 'transfer cells' of plants. These hyphae are multinucleate, coenocytic, and contain numerous mitochondria as well as extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum2-4,. These are all features suggestive of intensive physiological activity.
Figure 1. Please fully justify all figure captions if they are more than 1 line in length. If you cannot embed your figure in the text electronically, please insert a suitable space and the caption and submit the figure separately ensuring it is clearly labelled with your name, figure number and orientation. Do not affix figures to your chapter with adhesive tape or glue.
2.1 Ecological Considerations - A Synthesis of Laboratory and Field Observations
Analyses of the structural and functional attributes of selected fungi such as Suillus bovinus, growing on natural substrates, while useful in clarifying likely nutritional roles, still provide greatly oversimplified views of the situations prevailing in nature where mixed communities of plant and fungal species co-exist and interact. In order to understand their interrelationships there is no alternative but to depend upon careful field observations of the kind traditionally made by those adopting the more holistic alternative path in mycorrhizal research. Access to the powerful tools of molecular biology now, however, promises to provide a much greater rigour in studies which attempt to unravel the complicated web of these microbial interactions. So far these tools have allowed us only top plot the distribution of distinctive genomes. In future they may have to be developed to permit a more dynamic understanding.
3. PLANT DEFENCE REACTIONS
Catalase could be involved in the regulation of the production of activated oxygen species elicited by cell wall elicitors of ectomycorrhizal fungi6. Transcript concentration of catalase is down-regulated by 50% in 4 day-old eucalypt ectomycorrhizas and this decreased expression might favor the accumulation of the defence molecule H2O2.
Table 1. Expressed sequenced tags cloned from 4-day-old ectomycorrhizas of Eucalyptus globulus bicostata - Pisolithus tinctorius corresponding to known proteins
cDNA clone Putative protein Organism Homology (%)
EST 94 Cylicin Bos taurus 20
EST 32 Hydrophobin Schizophyllum commune 68
EST 141 Hydrophobin S. commune 39
This table has only been reproduced in part.
Ectomycorrhiza development influences both plant and fungus gene expression in a pleiotropic manner. A range of fungal tissues can be distinguished by a combination of anatomical and cytological features (e.g. mantle, Hartig net). On the other hand, root tips proliferate and root cells experience major alteration in their orientation and morphology.
There are inclusions in this text from a number of different articles, which is why it makes little or no sense.
The work from our laboratory was supported by grants from the Scientific Committee. I would also like to thank Prof. P. R. Smith for a critical reading of the manuscript. Please note the English spelling of acknowledgements.
1. Frank, E., 1988, Plants and Fungi. In Botanical Research Techniques (J. Willis and P. Peterson, eds.), Academic Press, London, pp.7-15.
2. Dudderidge, W., and Read, R., 1965, Molecular signals from plants. Am. J. Genetics 7: 232-234.
3. Massicote, J. J., 1990, PhD Thesis Endomycorrhizal Fungi. University of London.
4. Blasius, K., Anderson, P.T., Wallis, T., and Grigson, Y., 1976, Eucalyptus roots. Plenum Press, New York.